List of Medicinal Plants | Their Uses in Different Diseases

Medicinal plants are valuable resources for our health care system since ancient period.

These natural herbs are an important source of drugs for alternative medicine systems.

These systems include Ayurveda, homeopathy, Unani and even allopathy.

They are thought to constitute 80% of total drugs used by humans.

These natural healing herbs are used in the treatment of many diseases and disorders.

Their specialty is advantages like better compatibility in the body, easy metabolism, low side effects and also less expensive than synthetic drugs.

Further, they are not harmful to the environment after disposal.

They don’t require heavy manufacture, expensive analysis, and storage facility.

They retain their potency for a long period if stored well.

list of medicinal plants

Many of them can be used as home-made preparations, during an emergency or can be bought as over the counter drugs without a physician prescription.

These medicinal plants come under different types of plants and not restricted to one family or type of plants.

So below chart gives an idea of the List of Medicinal Plants and uses.

List of Medicinal Plants, their uses

Sl.No. Name of plantSource of plant (Scientific) Uses
1AconiteAconitum ferox –plant rootLeprosy, cholera,catarrh
2Aloe veraAloe barbadensisSucculent leaves. Used as hydrating agent for smooth skin
3ArjunaTerminalia Arjuna-Tree dry BarkCorrect Blood pressure, heart beat, congestive heart failure, OPD for easy breath
4AshwagandhaWithania somnifera-roots & stem bases.Neurotonic, Rheumatism, gout, hypertension, cancer
5BelladonnaAtropa accuminata-leaves & flowersAnti-spasmodic, anticholinergic, antidote for chloral hydrate & opium poisoning
6BanafshaViola odorataAnti-bacterial, anti-fungal, in fever, as expectorant (to remove phlegm)
7Black pepperPiper nigrum-unripe fruitsAs stomachic (enhances hunger), carminative (enhances eructation)
8CarawayCarum carvi,dry ripe fruitsExpels gas by eructation
9CascarDried bark of Rhamnus purshianaAs stomachic and laxative
10CardamomElettaria cardamomum-dry-ripe fruitsExpels gas by eructation (carminative)
11Castor oilRicinus communis-seed’s fixed oilCatharatic (in constipation), hair growth promoter
12Ceylon CinnamonCinnamomum zeylanicumCarminative (enhances eructation)
13Citronella oilCymbopogan nardus-volatile oil from leavesMosquito repellent
14CloveEugenia caryophyllus-dry flower budDental analgesic, anti-septic, carminative
15Coriander Coriandrum sativum-dry fruitsCarminative
16CorkwoodDuboisia myoporoides-dry leavesDuboisia myoporoides-dry leves
 DigitalisDried leaves of digitalis purpurea.Treatment of heart failur and cardiac arrhythmia
17Egyptian HenbaneHyoscyamus niger-leaves & flower tipRelieve spasm of urinary tract & gripping effect of purgatives
18Eucalyptus oilEucalyptus citriodara-leaf oilHas essential oils with uses like Expectorant (removes phlegm), counter-irritant.
19FennelFoeniculum vulgare-dry ripe fruitExpels gas by eructation
20GarlicAllium sativum-bulbsTo enhance libido, expel phlegm, for eructation
21GinsengPanax ginsengAs immunomodulator. See more health benefits of ginseng.
22GingerZingiber officinale, dried rhizomeAnti-emetic, anti inflammatory.
23Glycyrrhiza (Liquorice)Glycyrrhiza glabra; dried roots and stolonsExpectorant and anti-inflammatory
24SennaCassia angustifolia-dried leaflets
For purgation of bowels.
25IpecacCephaelis ipecacuanha-dried roots & rhizomesTo induce vomiting (emetic)
26IsapgolPlantago ovate-To relieve constipation (laxative)
27JiraCiminum cyminum-dry ripe fruit Ciminum cyminum-dry ripe fruitStimulant, carminative
28Lemon grass OilCymbopogan flexosus-volatile oil of leaves & other plant partsVitamin-A precursor
29Mentha oilMentha piperita-volatile oil from flowersExpels gas by eructation
30Opium poopyPapaver somniferum-dry latex having Morphine, codeine etc.To relieve severe pains, cough, & also as hypnotic
31Palmarosa oilCymbopogan martini-volatile oil
from leaves
Insect repellent
32PapainCarica papaya (papaya plant-unripe fruit latex.One of anti inflammatory herbs
33Peruvian barkCinchona ledgeriana-dried barkAnti-malarial drug
34PyrethrumChrysanthemum cineraria folium flower headsAs an insecticide to kill insects mosquito repellent
Dioscorea composite-dried tubersFor rheumatic arthritis
36RauwolfiaRauwolfia serpentine-Dry rootsAs a Anti-hypertensive agent
37Sandal wood oilSantalum album-volatile oilDecreases frequent urination
38Solanum khasianumSolanum-dried berriesFor steroid production
39TulsiOcimum sanctum-fresh & dry leavesUses of tulsi are Anti-bacterial, insecticide and immune modulator
40TurmericCurcuma longs-dry rhizomesAnti-septic, anti-oxidant, condiment
41Turpentine oil.Pinus roxburghii-volatile oilCounter irritant (for pain relief)
42Vetiver oilVetiveria zizanoides-volatile oil from
Relive prickly heat and itching
43VincaCatharanthus roseus-entre plantmedicinal plants for cancer treatment, anticancer herbs
44YewTaxus baccataDry leaves, bark & roots.

This big list of uses indicates the importance of plants. So we need to take efforts to prevent them from eradication in the name of development.

Conservation of medicinal plants is very important for future use.

Due to heavy use, large plants and those plants which take a long time for germination and growth are chopped off.

Hence the conservation of medicinal plants is done by obtaining the medicinal plant material by agriculture methods of cultivation instead of relying on the plants grown naturally in forests.

Further, we need to take steps for conservation of medicinal plants by obtaining these medicinal plant drugs by tissue culture method where possible.

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